ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE SPEED
DOPPLER SHIFT
and
ALICE LAW

Han Erim
November 15, 2023

Introduction to the topic

I said in my previous publications that Alice Law is essentially Electromagnetic Theory, and that Electromagnetic Theory should switch to (c+v) (c-v) mathematics. In this article, I will show you how to switch to Alice Law by making use of Wave Mechanics and Doppler Shift.

While explaining the subject, I used a device that produces uniform sine wave at a constant frequency as an electromagnetic wave source. You can think that the wavelength of the signals produced by such a device will be .... But... however... usually it doesn't happen like that. Because if a broadcast signal goes to a moving target, both the wavelength of the signal (Doppler Shift) and the speed of the signal change during the broadcast of the signal. In accordance with this situation, for an object emitting an electromagnetic wave, the speed of an electromagnetic wave it emits is as follows:

Abbreviations used:
Signal: Electromagnetic wave
Source Object: The object sending the signal.
Target Object: The object that the signal reaches.

: Speed of the signal it emits relative to the Source Object
: Light speed constant
: Signal broadcast frequency of the Source Object
: Unchanged, normal wavelength of the signal
: Amount of change in wavelength .
: Changed wavelength (Doppler Shift)
: The speed difference between the Source Object and the Target Object at the moment of the broadcast of the signal.
: If the Source Object and the Target Object are moving away from each other: (+), and if they are approaching each other: (-)

This article only mentions Doppler Shift in Electromagnetic interaction. The formation mechanism of Acoustic Doppler Shift, which is related to sound, is very different and is beyond our scope.

In this section, I have given preliminary information about the subject. At this stage, I will first show that the wavelength change in Doppler Shift occurs during the broadcast of the signal. Then I will move on to signal speeds and Alice Law, respectively.

Doppler Shift (change in signal wavelength) occurs during the broadcast of the signal.

It is not difficult to understand that the change in wavelength in Doppler Shift occurs during the broadcast of the signal. Let's examine Figure 1 below. The three devices in the figure are identical to each other. Device[0] is motionless, Device[1] is approaching the tower with speed u, and Device[2] is moving away from the tower with speed u. For ease of explanation, we consider the speeds of moving devices to be equal. The figure shows the starting position of the event. At this moment, all three devices are at an equal distance from the Tower, and they start sending signals to the Tower. There is no limitation for the distance between the tower and the devices.

Figure 1- Beginning of the event

Since the frequencies of the devices are the same (), the devices will broadcast a single wavelength of the sine wave in time. Time is a common time value for all three devices.

Let's examine the flow of the event depending on time : At the beginning of time , the devices start sending signals while they are at an equal distance from the Tower. At the end of time , the devices will have broadcast a single sine wave. The locations of the broadcast signals and devices at this moment are shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2- The status of the signals going towards the tower at the end of time . The moment when the devices broadcast a complete sine wave.

Analysis of the situation in Figure 2:
While the devices were in that position O, they started sending signals to the tower. During time , while the emitted parts of the sine waves travel towards the tower with speed , Device[1] and Device[2] are going in their own direction of motion. At the end of time , the emission of sine waves is completed. At this moment, the front ends of the sine waves will be at an equal distance from the tower, while their back ends will be at the location of the devices. As can be seen, the wavelengths of the signals are comprised of different lengths. The wavelength of the signal sent by Device[2] moving away from the tower increased by , and the wavelength of the signal sent by Device[1] coming towards the tower decreased by . Thus, we reach the result.

 In Doppler Shift, the wavelength change occurs during the broadcast of the signal.

I must say that this is a very important finding. Because this determination puts an end to many discussions about the Theory of Physics, and in addition, it shows very easily many important details that are unknown or not well known in Physics and enables them to be understood.

Calculation of Signal Wavelengths and Signal Velocities

We can calculate the length of wavelengths in Figure 2 with the emission time (or frequency) of the sine wave and the speeds of the devices.

 Device number Wavelength of the broadcast signal [2] [1] [0] (no change)

Table 1- Calculation of the wavelengths of the signals broadcast by the devices

Figure 2 also provides important information about the speed of the signals that the devices send to the tower, according to their own reference systems. Since the wavelengths of the signals occur at different lengths at the end of the period (), the speeds of the signals broadcast according to the reference systems of the devices are different from each other. The table below shows the speeds of the signals broadcast by the devices according to their reference systems.

 Device number According to each device's own reference system, the speed of the signal it broadcasts. [2] [1] [0]

Table 2 - Speeds of signals broadcast by devices according to their own reference systems

In the equations above, the "v" value, which normally represents the divergence/convergence speed of two objects (Tower and Device) relative to each other, should have been used. However, since the movements here are only on a single axis, we can use "u" speed values instead of "v" values (v = u). Thus, we have automatically switched to Alice Law. Alice Law is the name of the situation that emerged in Table 2. (See: Alice Law, Transition to (c+v) (c-v) Mathematics in Electromagnetic Theory, 2017, Han Erim)

Thus, we saw how equality in the subject was achieved.
The speed of the electromagnetic wave emitted by an object, according to its own reference system, is as follows:

Outgoing Signal Equation

Signal speed = Frequency of the signal x Changed/unchanged wavelength of the signal
Signal speed = Speed of light constant + Speed of the Source and Target objects relative to each other

As can be seen from the equation, if the Source Object and the Target Object are motionless relative to each other; since will be , and , the speed of the signal becomes equal to relative to the source broadcasting the signal.

Outgoing Signal Definition: For an object, the electromagnetic wave it emits is called Outgoing Signal and its speed is determined by the above equation.

What are the frequencies and wavelengths of the signals coming to the tower?

We determined that the wavelengths of the signals sent by the devices to the Tower were different from each other (Figure 2). The devices started sending signals from an equal distance to the Tower (Figure 1). We know that the signals will arrive at the tower at speed (we accept this as a prerequisite). For this reason, the front ends of the signals will arrive at the tower at the same time (Figure 3).

Figure 3- Signals arrive at the tower with speed .

The different wavelengths of the signals coming to the tower, cause the signals to be received by the tower in different durations. Since we know the wavelengths of the signals coming to the tower and their speed relative to the tower, we can find the reception times and frequencies of the signals.

 Signal number Wavelength of the Incoming Signal Speed of Incoming Signal One wavelength long of the signal Receipt Time Frequency  of the  Incoming  Signal [2] [1] [0]

Table 3- Reception times and frequencies of signals coming to the tower.

As a result, the signals of devices broadcasting at frequency are received at the Tower with frequencies. As can be seen again, there is equality between the signals coming to the Tower.

I will touch upon Galileo's Principle of Relativity in the following section. However, I need to mention this by the way. We can generalize the result we obtained here based on Galileo's Principle of Relativity. For a Target Object, the speed of the signal arriving at it is always constant and equal to

Incoming Signal Equation

: Speed of incoming signal = Speed of light constant
: Frequency of incoming signal
: Wavelength of the incoming signal

Incoming Signal Definition: A signal that comes to an object or whose destination is itself is called Incoming Signal.

If a signal is sent from the tower to the devices, where and how does the wavelength change occur?

Figure 4- We place a device on the tower and send a signal from the tower

Let's place the same device broadcasting on frequency on the tower and send the signal from the tower. We know that Doppler Shift will occur on the signals coming to devices [1] and [2], which are moving relative to the tower. But how and where does this happen? We have previously used the speed of the devices to understand how the wavelength change occurs (Figure 2). But here we cannot use the same method because the Tower is motionless.

First, I would like to show you the false logic that still exists in Electromagnetic Theory. I prepared Figure 5 for this purpose.

Figure 5- The wrong logic still in force in Electromagnetic Theory: The tower is broadcasting on frequency . Since it is thought that the wavelength of the signals broadcast will be , the signals are depicted in the figure as leaving the tower with wavelength and speed in all directions.

Why is Figure 5 wrong? If we examine the figure within the rules of geometry and mathematics, we see that the speed of the signal coming to it from the Tower according to Device[2]'s own reference system is , and that the speed of the signal coming to it from the Tower according to Device[1]'s own reference system is . However, the speed of a signal arriving at an object relative to its own reference system must always be . (In Alice Law, "c+v", "c-v" mathematics is not like this. Don't be surprised. We will see the correct way to use it a little later). Another mistake is this: Here the conclusion is that Doppler Shift (wavelength change) must occur when the signals reach their destination. However, in Doppler Shift, the wavelength change must occur during the broadcast of the signal.

What is right? Let's see this now. When we send signals from the tower, the information that will enable us to find the wavelength change in the signals comes from the GALILEI PRINCIPLE OF RELATIVITY. According to this principle, if two objects are in motion relative to each other, there is no real answer as to which of the two objects is in motion. In any case, the laws of physics will apply the same for both objects. Therefore, by taking advantage of Galileo's Principle of Relativity and the information in Figure 2, we can easily find the wavelengths and speeds of the signals sent from the Tower to the devices. Namely, the signal sent by Device[2] to the Tower and the signal sent by the Tower to Device[2] must be identical. Since the wavelength of the signal sent by Device 2 to the Tower is and the speed of the signal sent by Device 2 according to its own reference system is , the wavelength of the signal sent from the Tower to Device[2] will be and the speed according to the Tower will be . We can also apply this way of thinking to signals going from the Tower to other devices. As can be seen, Galileo's Principle of Relativity brought us to the conclusion immediately..

Figure 6- At the end of the period, the wavelengths of the signals sent from the Tower to the devices and the speeds of the signals relative to the tower are seen. It was prepared with the information obtained from Figure 2.

Galileo's Principle of Relativity is a very powerful aid in Theoretical Physics. It is a real saviour in such situations when we need it. It is very difficult, if not impossible, to obtain Figure 6 without resorting to this principle. If you doubt the accuracy of Figure 6, you should look at Figure 2. Because if Figure 2 is true, Figure 6 is automatically true.

I included the figure below to complete the topic. Tower and Devices mutually send signals to each other. The characteristics of a signal sent from the tower to a device and the signal sent from that device to the tower are identical.

Figure 7- Mutually sent signals and the situation at the end of time. We are watching the event from the reference system of the tower.

 Where does the signal go from where? Relative to the reference system of the Source Object, the frequency, wavelength and speed of the signal it emit. Relative to the reference system of the Target Object, the frequency, wavelength, and speed of the signal arriving at it. Frequency Wavelength Speed Frequency Wavelength Speed Tower[2] [2]Tower Tower[1][1]Tower Tower[0][0]Tower

Table 4- Outgoing and Incoming signals and Galileo Relativity Principle

Let's see that the incoming signal equality is preserved; In the figure, we can easily see that the speed of the signal sent from the Tower to Device[2] with speed is according to Device[2]. . A similar situation exists for Device[1]. . In other words, the condition that the speed of the signal arriving at the devices relative to their own reference systems is is met.

I would especially like to emphasize; In fact, the Tower and the Devices broadcast at  wavelength in accordance with the equation, but they are not involved in changing the wavelength of the signal they broadcast. The change in Wavelength occurs independently of the Source Object broadcasting the signal. It is the Target Object that changes the wavelength.

Michelson-Morley experiment and Galileo's Principle of Relativity

It would be nice to combine our results with the Michelson-Morley experiment. Galileo's Principle of Relativity is with us here too.

In the figure below, a Star has sent a light signal to the Earth. In the figure, we see the speed of the signal according to the reference systems of the Star and the Earth.

Figure 8- Correct interpretation of the Michelson-Morley experiment..

First, I would like to show the direct relationship of the figure with Galileo's Principle of Relativity. If we pay attention, it is not clear in the figure whether the Star or the Earth or both are in motion. All we can say is that the Earth and the Star are in motion relative to each other. Despite this uncertainty, the Outgoing Signal and Incoming Signal equations in the figure maintain their invariance. We know this from here; Michelson-Morley experiment is the experiment that proves that the Incoming Signal speed is . The Doppler Shift (1840 Christian Doppler) equation shows the invariance of the Outgoing Signal equation.

Doppler Shift and wavelength change

The values in the Doppler Shift equation and the Outgoing Signal equation are identical to each other. The unknown issue in physics was the speed of the Outgoing Signal. This issue has been resolved with Alice Law.

This point is of course important; Galileo's Principle of Relativity does not provide information about the underlying cause of the event; it can only tell what kind of result will occur. Let's assume that the star in the figure does not move at all. Even in this case, a light signal sent by the star to the earth will travel towards the earth at a speed of with a changed wavelength, as if it knew the speed of the earth in space, that is, it will move at a speed of relative to the earth. How and why is this so? Galileo's Principle of Relativity cannot answer this. Can the Electromagnetic Theory answer? No, it cannot answer either. In Alice Law, you can immediately see that this is the case, so there is an answer. But better answers will undoubtedly come as Alice Law is studied and only after many years. I recommend you to quickly adapt yourself to Alice Law.

I prepared a final figure that includes and summarizes the information explained here. In the figure, we look at the event from the Tower's reference system. As can be seen, the Signal Tower is broadcasting to its surroundings at frequency and wavelength , (). The signals broadcast go towards objects moving in various directions and speeds. Since all the information has been given before, I am giving it here without comment.

Figure 9- Doppler Shift.

Results of the Study

Understanding that the change in wavelength occurs during the broadcast of the signal is a threshold point for Theoretical Physics. If you have reached this threshold, from now on you cannot look at Physics the same way, even if you wanted to. Because a lot of interesting information comes one after another. To give an example, I have written down some of the information provided by this study.

1) In Doppler Shift, the wavelength change occurs during the emission of the electromagnetic wave. [Ref: Figure 2, Figure 6]

2) The factor that determines the amount of change in wavelength is the speed of the Target Object relative to the Source object. [Ref: Figure 2, Figure 6]

3) Wavelength change is independent of the distance between the Source Object and the Target Object. [Ref: Figure 2]

4) The speed of an electromagnetic wave is independent of the object emitting it. [Ref: Figure 2, Figure 6]

5) When an electromagnetic wave is emitted, the Target Object it will reach is determined. [Ref: Figure 6]

Actually, there are many more results, but I didn't want to write them here. The more you work on Alice Law, the more results you can achieve.

Is there experimental validation?

We have already seen that there are two experimental confirmations of what is described here. The existence of Doppler Shift and the Michelson-Morley experiment are experimental evidence of what is described here. But direct experimental verification will undoubtedly be needed. Figure 6 clearly shows us what needs to be done. Measuring the speed of the signal sent from a stationary reference system to a moving target will be sufficient for verification. And of course, this measurement must be made from a stationary reference system. It may also be a method to consider the reference systems of the Source and the Target separately and measure the speed of the signal relative to each reference system.

Physics is 2023-1840 = 183 years late to conduct this experiment. I have been calling out for such an experiment since 2001, when I opened the aliceinphysics.com website. After publishing my book "Alice's Law, Transition to (c+v) (c-v) Mathematics in Electromagnetic Theory" in 2017, I started to speak out louder. We are now about to enter the year 2024, my voice is hoarse from shouting. Universities, Institutes, maybe you will take into consideration what is written here and do this experiment.

It is also possible to design experiments that can show that the wavelength change in Doppler Shift occurs at the signal source. If requested, I will be happy to express my opinions on this subject.