**22. DIMENSION SHIFT**

Another event that occurs in the electromagnetic interaction between objects that are in motion relative to each other is Dimension Shift. Dimension Shift shows itself as shortening or lengthening of the lengths of Image Objects in Absolute Space-Time in the direction of their movement. In other words, it is a very common and ordinary event and we are always affected by it even though we don’t notice it. The reason why we don’t notice it is that our speed limits are too small compared to the speed of light.

The formation structure of Dimension Shift actually has quite a simple mechanical structure. All objects have volumes; which means they are three-dimensional; they have width, length, and height. When we combine the information on the dimension of an object and the “Seeing Event”, we can easily understand how Dimension Shift occurs. Firstly, let’s discuss how the “Seeing Event” occurs by examining the situation below in which the observer and the Source Object that are motionless relative to each other.

The course of events for the figure above:

1) The observer and the ruler are motionless relative to each other. A signal (Signal1) is emitted from the far corner of the ruler (Point A).

2) Signal1 moves towards the observer. At the moment Signal1 and Point B are at the same distance to the observer, a second signal is emitted (Signal2) from Point B. (Matching takes place.)

3) Both the signals move towards the observer together.

4) Both signals arrive at the observer simultaneously. The observer sees the Image Object of the ruler with this information he receives. The location of the Image Object has been determined by Point A and B, where the signals are emitted. In this example here, because the observer and the ruler are motionless relative to each other, the Source Object and the Image Object share the same coordinates.

As seen in the figure above, we dealt with two signals (two signals that matched with each other) which are from the closest and the furthers points of the Source Object to the observer and that will arrive at the observer at the same time in order to find the location of the Image Object. Using two signals is enough for the example here; we would have to use more signals for a more complex event.

**
22.1. DIMENSION SHIFT BETWEEN OBJECTS THAT MOVE AWAY FROM EACH OTHER **

Now, let’s examine the situation while the ruler is in motion. In the figure below, the ruler goes in the direction of the black arrow. We want to find out how the observer saw the Image Object of the ruler.

Let’s see the course of events in order:

1) The ruler goes in the direction of the black arrow. In the meantime, a signal (Signal1) is emitted from the far corner of the ruler (Point A). We connect Point A and the observer with a line. Signal1 will follow this line while going to the observer.

2) While Signal1 is going toward the observer, the ruler goes in the direction of the black arrow. At the moment Signal1 and Point B are at the same distance to the observer, a second signal is emitted (Signal2) from Point B. (Matching takes place.) We connect Point B and the observer with a line, as well. Signal2 will follow this line and reach the observer.

3) While Signal1 and Signal2 go towards the observer by following their own lines, the ruler keeps going in the direction of the black arrow.

4) The signals arrive at the observer simultaneously. As a result of this, the observer sees the Image Object of the ruler. Relative to the reference system of the observer, the location of the Image Object lies between Point A and B where the signals set out. At this moment, the location of the Source Object and the Image Object are different. We see in the figure that the length of the Image Object is SHORTER than the length of the Source Object. As seen here, Dimension Shift took place on the Image Object of the ruler.

**The dimensions of the Image Object of an object that is in motion are different from the dimensions of its Source Object.** |

By making use of the figure above, let’s write the mathematical equations of Dimension Shift.
Since both objects are moving away from each other, I will first discuss this mathematics for objects that are moving away.

We can write the following three equations by using the figure.

d_{0} = c.t_{0}

d_{1} = c.t_{1}

d_{2} = v.t_{1}

Explanation of the equations: If we call the length of the ruler on the X axis
“d_{0}”,

the signal will travel this distance at c speed in
t_{0} = d_{0} / c time. Therefore, d_{0} = c.t_{0}. However, because the ruler is in motion, the arrival of the signal to the other side of the ruler takes less time. If we call this time
t_{1}, the signal covers d_{1} = c.t_{1} distance within this time. Within the same time, the ruler covers
d_{2} = v.t_{1} distance on the X axis. Considering these three equations obtained, the mathematics of Dimension Shift can be reached as follows:

**
22.2. DIMENSION SHIFT BETWEEN OBJECT THAT APPROACH EACH OTHER**

Now, let’s discuss the situation while the ruler is approaching the observer. We draw a similar figure.

I am writing the course of events in the previous example without changing it a lot.

1) The ruler goes in the direction of the black arrow. In the meantime, a signal (Signal1) is emitted from the far corner of the ruler (Point A). We connect Point A and the observer with a line. Signal1 will follow this line while going to the observer.

2) While Signal1 is going toward the observer, the ruler goes in the direction of the black arrow. At the moment Signal1 and Point B are at the same distance to the observer, a second signal is emitted (Signal2) from Point B. (Matching takes place.) We connect Point B and the observer with a line, as well. Signal2 will follow this line and reach the observer.

3) While Signal1 and Signal2 go towards the observer by following their own lines, the ruler keeps going in the direction of the black arrow.

4) The signals arrive at the observer simultaneously. As a result of this, the observer sees the Image Object of the ruler. Relative to the reference system of the observer, the location of the Image Object lies between Point A and B where the signals set out. At this moment, the location of the Source Object and the Image Object are different. We see in the figure that the length of the Image Object is LONGER than the length of the Source Object. As seen here, Dimension Shift took place on the Image Object of the ruler.

Now, let’s find the mathematics of Dimension Shift for objects that approach each other by using the figure in a similar way.

**
22.3. GENERAL DIMENSION SHIFT EQUATION**

We can express Dimension Shift equation between objects that approach and that move away from each other with two general equations. The equation on the left shows it with signal speeds and the equation on the right with wavelength change. In (c±v) component, the sign “±” gets “+” value if the objects are moving away from each other and “-” value if the objects are approaching each other.

d_{0}: The length of the Source Object in the direction of the movement

d_{1}: The length of the Image Object in the direction of the movement

c : Light speed factory setting or INCOMING signal speed coming to the target object relative to it

(c±v) : The OUTGOING signal speed according to the Source Object

λ_{0}: The wavelength factory setting of the source

λ_{1}: Wavelength measured at the target

**
22.4. ****RELATIONSHIP OF DIMENSION SHIFT WITH (C+V) (C-V) MATHEMATICS**

If you paid attention, in the examples we saw just saw, we reached the conclusion of Dimension Shift without finding it necessary to use (c+v) (c-v) mathematics. Even though the results of (c+v) (c-v) mathematics came out in the mathematical equations, (c+v) (c-v) mathematics has always hidden itself and remained in the background. Now, I’d like to tell you about a situation where (c+v) (c-v) mathematics clearly emerges in Dimension Shift. I created the figure below for this purpose.

1) The observer and Source Object are moving in a way that they are moving away from each other. We want to find where and how the observer sees the Image Object.

2) Firstly, we assume that the observer is motionless and we move the Source Object in the direction of the arrow. The more we increase the number of signal emission points (Source Coordinates), the more details we get about the Image Object that we obtain. In the way that we saw before, by using the emission coordinates of the signals, we obtain the Image Object. The work we did here, although in a bit more detail, is completely the same as what we did before. There is no need for (c+v) (c-v) mathematics here.

3) However, we want to move the observer and leave the Source Object motionless and we want to obtain the Image Object this situation. For this, while moving the observer at v speed, we must change the speed of the signals that go to the observer as (c+v). When Visual 2 and Visual 3 in the figure are placed in a way overlapping the observers, the Image Objects and the Source Objects must overlap completely in the both visuals. And this is only possible when (c+v) (c-v) mathematics is applied for Visual 3 on the figure.

**
22.5. DIMENSION SHIFT TABLE **

I wanted to show you the features of Dimension Shift in a table. The table below is a table that shows us the amounts of dimension change on the Image objects and that gives us the theoretical background.

The table was created from the equation:

Explanation of the table:

“+v” values in the line “v speed value” shows that the reference systems are moving away from each other and “-v” shows that the reference systems are approaching each other. “0” point represents the situation where the reference systems are motionless relative to each other. We can increase the v values that show the difference in the speed of reference systems in both directions. There are no theoretical limits on this matter.

As seen in the Table, in the case in which the reference systems are moving away from each other, the length of the Image Object in the direction of the movement gradually shortens.

If the reference systems are approaching each other, the length of the Image Object gets longer. As we get to values closer to the speed of light, the length of the Image Object gets closer to infinity in the direction of the movement. If the reference systems are approaching each other at the speed of light, the image of the Image Object becomes undefined. (Remember the ruler example; no Image Object can be formed because signal matching doesn’t happen. A signal that sets out from Point A can never reach the alignment of Point B in any way.)

The table also shows an interesting situation. It answers the question: “If two objects are approaching each other at a speed higher than the speed of light, how does the Image Object look?”. If -c speed is exceeded, the image of the Image Object is reversed in the direction of the movement. At -2c speed, the length of the Image Object is the same as the Source Object but the Image Object is the reversed image. If -2c speed is exceeded, the Image Object again shortens after that stage.

The reason why the Image Object gives a reverse image after -c speed is that the signal matching order changes. If you remember, in the ruler example, the signal set out from Point A and when it came to the alignment of Point B, the second signal set out from Point B. While the reverse image is being formed, the first signal sets out from Point B and, when it comes to the alignment of Point A, it matches with the signal that set out from Point A. The formation of reverse image is a mathematical result that (c+v) (c-v) mathematics indicates.