**10. DOPPLER SHIFT**

Doubtlessly, the prominent result among the results of Alice law is the natural unity of (c+v) (c-v) mathematics and Doppler Shift. To say clearly, after I realized this unity, there was an extraordinary breakthrough in my studies on Alice Law because studying Alice Law and Doppler Effect together suddenly paved the way for reaching crucial information.

Although Doppler Shift, which is observed on electromagnetic waves, have been known in physics for a very long time, it has never been understood entirely because of the settlement of the idea
“*Speed of light is constant relative to all reference systems.*” in physics. Doppler Shift is a natural result of the existence of (c+v) (c-v) mathematics in nature and, in fact, it is the direct and firsthand proof of (c+v) (c-v) mathematics. If Doppler Shift had not been noticed until now and if there was a question “Can you show the proof of the existence of Alice Law?”, you would be able to answer the question by saying “Just look at Doppler Shift and you will see.” But in this case, of course, it would have been a must to discover Doppler Equations first. I was incredibly lucky to have these equations become available to me and this facilitated my works considerably.

(c+v) (c-v) mathematics and Doppler Shift are completely intertwined and blended; it is such a great unity. If there was no (c+v) (c-v) mathematics in nature, there would be no Doppler Shift on electromagnetic waves.

**What is Doppler Shift?**

Doppler Shift is the change of wavelength and frequency of electromagnetic waves coming from a source relative to the reference system of the target in the electromagnetic interaction between reference systems that are in motion relative to each other. This event was named Doppler Effect, or Doppler Shift. Doppler Shift is not only limited to electromagnetic interaction; it is also observed on sound or other events having the feature of waves. However, we will be dealing with Doppler Shift in only electromagnetic interaction for it is our topic here.

Doppler Effect is hand in hand with our daily lives. A number of devices have been invented for military, civilian, and scientific purposes by making use of the characteristics of Doppler Effect. Traffic control radars as we know them are a good example to devices working with Doppler Principles. Especially all astronomical observations are under the influence of this effect.

Although it is known and used so commonly, the science of Physics has not come up with a consistent explanation for the reason of Doppler Shift in The Electromagnetic Theory. There have only been mathematical equations. It is normal for them to not explain the reason because it is impossible to explain how Doppler Shift is formed without having (c+v) (c-v) mathematics in The Electromagnetic Theory.

It is vital to understand the topic of Doppler Shift thoroughly as, the more we know this topic, the better we will understand the events taking place depending on the functioning mechanism of electromagnetic interaction and the arising effects. As all the information we will learn in general terms is related to The Electromagnetic Theory, we will have learned The Electromagnetic Theory.

Let’s begin with the example in the figure above. A transmitter in the city is emitting signals. The signals emitted are received by two planes in motion and a station on the mountain. We assume that the speeds of the planes are equal, but while one of them is approaching the transmitter, the other moves away from the transmitter. Relative to the reference system of the transmitter, we can say, with the information we have learned so far, that the speeds of signals going to the planes and the mountain relative to the reference system of the transmitter.

Relative to the reference system of the transmitter;

The speed of the signal going to the plane moving away from the transmitter is (c+v).

The speed of the signal going to the plane approaching the transmitter is (c-v).

The speed of the signal traveling to the station on the mountain is c. (For the station and the transmitter are motionless relative to each other.)

Let’s assume that the transmitter was produced in order to emit at λ0 wavelength. For the three reference systems that receive the signal, the wavelength of a signal coming to a reference system itself differs from the others. We call this effect Doppler Shift.

The plane moving away from the transmitter receives the incoming signal over the wavelength
**λ**_{1}.

The plane approaching the transmitter receives the signal over the wavelength
** λ**_{2}.

The station on the mountain receives the signal over the wavelength ** λ**_{0}.